NPIP

The National Poultry Improvement Plan (NPIP) is a democratic regulatory program that is in place through the USDA to safeguard the health of the nation’s poultry industry. The federal cooperative program works to prevent the introduction of dangerous and costly diseases, enhance international trade, and is utilized to apply new diagnostic technology for the improvement of poultry and poultry products throughout the United States.

The program was initially developed to eliminate Pullorum Disease caused by Salmonella pullorum which was rampant in the 1930s and could cause up to 80% mortality in baby poultry. Testing and monitoring later extended to Salmonella typhoid, Salmonella enteritidis, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Mycoplasma synoviae, Mycoplasma meleagridis, and Avian Influenza. While the program was originally built for breeders, NPIP now includes commercial poultry, turkeys, waterfowl, exhibition poultry backyard poultry and game birds.

NPIP consists of programs that test for many diseases of poultry. In Michigan, lay people are trained and certified to test for pullorum disease. All other testing is done by veterinarians or at animal diagnostic laboratories. Pullorum disease testing is required for sales and exhibitions in Michigan. In addition, most states require pullorum testing of fowl before they or their eggs or baby birds are allowed to be imported.

NPIP FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS

1. Should I register my flock with NPIP?
  1. I plan to ship hatching eggs, young stock or birds out of state.
    Most states require at a minimum that all fowl are tested for pullorum disease. You must however, first check with the State Veterinarian’s Office of the state which you intend to ship your birds to determine that state’s requirements for importation. It does help the process if your flock is registered with the NPIP as being pullorum free. Once registered, you can ship birds for a period of one (1) year after they have been blood tested as long as you do not add birds to your flock that have not been tested for pullorum disease.
  2.  I have backyard chickens and sell my eggs to neighbors.
    No, you do not need to be a NPIP registered flock
  3. I exhibit my birds in Michigan.
    Yes, you may register your flock and move birds with NPIP flock registration, but it is not required. There are other methods of testing birds for pullorum disease for fairs and exhibitions. Many fairs test birds at the fair or birds are tested up to 90 days before the fair. In those cases, a Michigan state form is used (MDARD: Avian Test Record). Avian Test Record forms are issued to certified pullorum testers.
  4. I exhibit my birds in other states.
    You need to check with the states where you plan on exhibiting your birds to determine their requirements.
  5. I have a game bird farm.
    If you plan to ship birds, hatching eggs or baby poultry to other states, yes, you should register your flock. Check with each state where you plan on shipping to determine their requirements.
  6. I am a commercial facility that breeds and hatches.
    Yes
  7. I want to sell my eggs/poultry products at a farmer’s market.
    No, you do not need to be a NPIP registered flock.
2. What does NPIP designation give me?
  1. The ability to ship hatching eggs, young stock and birds out of state.
  2. The ability to take your birds to fairs and exhibitions in Michigan.
3. Am I covered for more diseases than Pullorum?
  1. Michigan only requires flocks to be tested for Pullorum.
4. What if my flock becomes infected with a disease other than Pullorum?
  1. Contact your veterinarian, Michigan State University Extension or the State Veterinarian’s office at the Michigan Department of Agriculture and Rural Development (MDARD) immediately if your birds are sick and you suspect a catastrophic illness. MDARD: 1-800-292-3939, or after hours: 517-373-0440
  2. Certain infectious diseases are required to be reported to MDARD. See Michigan Reportable Disease List.
  3. If your flock contracts a disease other than Pullorum it will not affect your NPIP designation, unless you have NPIP status for other diseases.
5. I purchased birds from a NPIP registered flock and they appear to be sick. What do I do?
  1. Most small flocks in NPIP are only certified to be Pullorum clean but may carry other diseases. Always be careful to purchase birds that appear healthy and quarantine new birds for at least 30 days before adding them to your flock. See USDA Biosecurity for Birds.
  2. If you suspect your birds are sick contact your veterinarian, Michigan State University Extension or MDARD.
6. Are there any bird species that NPIP does not cover?
  1. Pigeons and doves are not covered by NPIP
7. I have a NPIP registered flock and I want to bring new birds into my flock. What is the appropriate procedure?
  1. New birds to your flock must be tested prior to comingling with your NPIP registered flock. To prevent the spread of other diseases, after the new birds are tested for pullorum, they should be kept separate and monitored for illness for a minimum of 30 days. After the 30-day period, add a couple of birds from your existing flock and monitor that group for 10 days. Watch for signs of illness. If nothing happens you may mix the two groups.
8. What are the costs associated with NPIP designation?
  1. Initial flock registration fee = $300
  2. Annual renewal (non-commercial sites) = $125
  3. Annual renewal (commercial sites) = $400
9. What are the steps to register my flock as a pullorum free flock with NPIP?
  1. You must have your flock tested by a certified blood-tester in Michigan. (To become a certified blood tester see Events: Blood Tester School for more information)
  2. Flocks less than 300 birds must test all birds. Flocks over 300 birds must test a minimum of 300 birds.
  3. You and the blood-tester must complete the NPIP Veterinary Services (VS) 9-2 Form (Flock Testing and Selection).
  4. The completed 9-2 form and the initial site registration fee must be submitted to Michigan Allied Poultry Industries for processing. [MAPI, PO Box 144, Hamilton, MI 49419]
  5. You will be notified by Michigan Allied Poultry Industries of your flock’s status and flock number assigned by the national NPIP office.
10. What is the minimum age to test birds for flock registration/renewal?
  1. NPIP requires birds to be 16 weeks and older for pullorum testing.
  2. FOR EXHIBITION: There is no minimum age to test birds for exhibition in Michigan
  3. The earliest you can test birds is 21 days.  At that time, the maternal antibody is gone and the test is a true reflection of the bird’s status.
11. What do I need to do annually to maintain my NPIP pullorum free status?
  1. You must have your flock tested by a certified blood-tester in Michigan.
  2. Flocks less than 300 birds must test all birds. Flocks over 300 birds must test a minimum of 300 birds.
  3. You and the blood-tester must complete the NPIP Veterinary Services (VS) 9-2 Form (Flock Testing and Selection).
  4. Completed VS 9-2 forms and the annual renewal fee must be received by Michigan Allied Poultry Industries by July 1 of each year, regardless of initial flock testing time.
12. What is the difference between the VS 9-2 and the VS 9-3 forms?
  1. VS 9-2 forms are used when initially establishing a flock as a NPIP pullorum free flock. VS 9-2 forms are also used annually to renew pullorum free NPIP status. A copy of these forms must be submitted to MAPI. Note: please include the printed name of your blood tester so the tester can receive credit towards the required amount of birds tested to maintain their certification (30 birds / 3 year certification).
  2. VS 9-3 forms are used when shipping hatching eggs, young stock or birds out of state.
13. How do I know what the receiving state requirements are for shipping my birds?
  1. Contact the State Veterinarian’s Office of the state you wish to ship to. Most State Veterinarian’s Offices have websites so their contact information can be found through an internet search.
14. Can I receive additional designations beyond Pullorum?
  1. Yes, please contact the Official State Agency for Michigan for guidance. Most testing for other diseases in NPIP is expensive and therefore cost-prohibitive to small poultry producers.